Iodine deficiency is a global health issue. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates over 2 billion people may be iodine deficient, with up to 50 million of them suffering from serious symptoms of iodine deficiency, such as brain damage. Once a rare problem in the Western world, this imbalance is on the increase in North America.
This may be related to modern, industrial agricultural practices and a lack of minerals in the soil. Environmental pollutants have robbed the soil of natural mineral levels, and this in turn, translates into poor iodine content in foods. In fact, in some regions of the country, soil levels of iodine are naturally low, and in regions where they used to be high, we are witnessing depletion. Iodine is especially necessary for pregnant women, their unborn babies, and young children; a deficiency can lead to severe developmental issues.[4, 5, 6] Recently, Iodine deficiency has been linked to autism in children.
Iodine deficiency symptoms manifest as a result of improper thyroid hormone production. Simply stated, when the thyroid gland does not receive enough iodine, trouble ensues. The more serious signs and symptoms of iodine deficiency may vary according to individuals, but usually include the following:
- Thyroid enlargement – sometimes called “goiter”
- Mental imbalances such as depression and anxiety
- Mental retardation (in extreme cases, and particular in children of mothers who have had an iodine deficiency)
- Fetal hypothyroidism (improper functioning of the thyroid in unborn children, leading to brain damage).
Other Symptoms of Iodine Deficiency
Beyond the global issue of iodine deficiency in children, Westerners are also susceptible to a lack of iodine. Many researchers are looking into the correlations between various chronic conditions and a lack of iodine.
Some of the lesser-known symptoms of iodine deficiency include:
Slowed Brain Function
Studies have shown the correlation between the shortage of iodine and cognitive function, particularly in the gestation period in children. In fact, one study from 2009 found that iodine supplementation in mildly-deficient children helped improve their perceptual reasoning.
A lack of iodine can lead to a reduced ability to biosynthesize food into usable nutrients.
This may lead to sluggish metabolism, weight gain and constipation.
Iodine deficiency leaves us open to free radical exposure, particularly in the thyroid gland, specifically in regard to the accumulation of harmful levels of fluoride, perchlorate, and goitrogens. This can cause individuals with symptoms of iodine deficiency to experience more colds and flus.
Emotional Upset and Anxiety
Due to the relationship between iodine and hormone balance, an iodine deficiency disrupts the proper functioning of hormone receptors and communication. This may lead to emotional imbalances, anxiety and a lack of sexual interest.
Cysts, soreness, and heaviness in breasts
A study reported in the Canadian Journal of Surgery found that 70% of patients given iodine supplements showed an improvement in their fibrocystic breast disease . This leads to speculation on the correlation between iodine deficiency and breast cancer, although more research is required. It is generally accepted that there is a connection between a lack of iodine in women, and breast pain/tenderness that can accompany the menstrual cycle.
Compromised organ function
Because of iodine’s role in organ health, iodine deficiency may lead to an inability of the bodies organs to detoxify. Compromised function of the detoxification organs may eventually lead to overall organ failure.
Improper thyroid function
The New England Journal of Medicine reported a correlation between iodine intake and thyroid disease. When the thyroid cannot function properly, it can lead to a whole host of symptoms. These include fatigue, exhaustion, puffy eyes, digestive upset, muscle pain, depression, weight gain, swelling in the body, menstrual upset, fuzzy head, memory impairment, allergic skin reactions, dry skin, brittle nails, sensitivity to cold, hair loss, high cholesterol or general low immunity.
Other possible symptoms of iodine deficiency are currently under scientific research. This research is looking into the possible correlations between iodine deficiency and breast and stomach cancers. Preliminary studies show that iodine deficiency may produce an increased incidence of cancerous malignancies in animals. Similarly, other research shows a possible relationship between iodine levels and gastric forms of cancer. These studies offer hope, as both show a decreased rate of cancer development when the animals are given an iodine-prophylaxis supplement.
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Everything You Need to Know About Iodine
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- Gordon RC, Rose MC, Skeaff SA, Gray AR, Morgan KM, Ruffman T. Iodine supplementation improves cognition in mildly iodine-deficient children. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Nov;90(5):1264-71. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.28145. Epub 2009 Sep 2.
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- Maria-Jesus Obregon, Francisco Escobar del Rey, and Gabriella Morreale de Escobar. The effects of iodine deficiency on thyroid hormone deiodination. Thyroid. August 2005, 15(8): 917-929. doi:10.1089/thy.2005.15.917.
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- Teng W, Shan Z, Teng X, Guan H, Li Y, Teng D, Jin Y, Yu X, Fan C, Chong W, Yang F, Dai H, Yu Y, Li J, Chen Y, Zhao D, Shi X, Hu F, Mao J, Gu X, Yang R, Tong Y, Wang W, Gao T, Li C. Effect of iodine intake on thyroid diseases in China. N Engl J Med. 2006 Jun 29;354(26):2783-93.
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