The Health Dangers of Energy Drinks

by Dr. Edward Group DC, NP, DACBN, DCBCN, DABFM Published on , Last Updated on June 12, 2014

The Dangers of Energy Drinks

Often promising a quick boost, an “energy drink” is generally defined as a drink which contains ingredients claimed to enhance mental and physical performance- in some way or another. Energy drinks have soared in popularity since the 1990’s and there are many, many readily available brands.

Energy drinks are usually packaged like soda, and have a soda-like taste, but their distinction from soda lies in the extra ingredients, or at least the extra hype surrounding the ingredients. The often-promised “heightened mental awareness” from energy drinks is largely due to caffeine content, which can vary tremendously. According to the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, energy drink caffeine content generally ranges from 50 mg to a mind-blowing, perhaps literally, 505 mg per can or bottle. [1]

Caffeine is natural and the mostly widely consumed stimulant in the world, many consumers believe it’s a worry-free source of immediate energy with absolutely no side effects. This couldn’t be further from the truth.

Both the Oxford Health NHS Foundation Trust and University of Massachusetts Department of Emergency Medicine warn that caffeine can raise blood pressure, disrupt sleep habits, aggravate psychiatric conditions, and induce reliance. Excessive caffeine consumption can cause caffeine intoxication that leads to a fast heartbeat, vomiting, seizure, and death. [2] [3]

The Magic Formula

In addition to caffeine, most energy drinks advertise a special blend of other herbs and ingredients. Sugar free varieties exist, but most energy drinks also contain large amounts of sugar. The “energy providing” elixirs are usually combinations of guarana, taurine, ginseng, and B vitamins. I would challenge anyone to find an energy drink whose marketing messages are in line with the abilities of what’s in the can. Wings? I doubt it. Michigan State University’s Kalamazoo Center for Medical Studies reports that the ginseng content of most energy drinks falls well below most dietary supplement guidelines. [4]

A concern with the use of the herbs in these drinks is their source. The manufacturers of energy drinks are not required to list whether or not the herbs they use have been sprayed with toxic pesticides, irradiated or watered with contaminated water supplies. There is no way of knowing what other toxins are contained in these drinks and whether or not these herbs will have a negative effect.

How Popular are Energy Drinks?

Based on the 2010 National Health Interview Survey data, the CDC reported that one in three adults consumed an energy drink within the past week, 21% had one more than once in the last week, and 11% consumed more than three energy drinks per week. [5] It raises the question, what’s going on in our lives and personal health for us to be so reliant on a constant stream of turbo juice?

Do Energy Drinks Enhance Cognitive Performance?

Although energy drinks manufacturers claim, or at least imply, that their drinks can have a positive effect on cognitive performance, studies have shown that, when compared against placebo (sugar-free lemonade), consuming energy drinks had no significant positive effect on concentration, reasoning, or aptitude. [6]

Do Energy Drinks Enhance Athletic Performance?

Consumption of energy drinks by both recreational and competitive athletes has increased dramatically in recent years.

The Department of Exercise Science at Creighton University conducted a randomized, double-blind, crossover study to examine the effect of sugar-free Red Bull on one repetition bench press. Seventeen college-age, resistance-trained men participated and results suggested that the sugar-free Red Bull offered no improvement or enhancement of one repetition bench press performance. [7]

A separate double-blind, randomized crossover study was conducted by Utah State University and determined that a low-calorie caffeine-taurine energy drink did NOT enhance the sprint performance and anaerobic power of the 20 NCAA Division I football players who participated in the research. [8]

Do Energy Drinks Belong in the Workplace?

The University of Louisiana at Lafayette warns that the mental and physical effects of energy drinks (altered sleep patterns, arrhythmias) may be detrimental to workplace safety, especially in the healthcare field. [9] Would you feel comfortable if your surgeon stepped out to down an energy drink before your surgery?

Energy Drinks in the Military

When Walter Reed Army Institute of Research conducted research to analyze the connection between energy drink use and combat-operation sleep problems that occur among service members, the conclusions were not positive.

Data from Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan showed that over 44% of deployed service members consumed at least one energy drink daily and nearly 14% consumed more than three per day. As can be expected, the service members who consumed three or more energy drinks per day were far more likely to sleep less than 4 hours a night, they were also more likely to experience ongoing stress and fatigue. [10]

Do You Really Need Energy Drinks?

There are heavy, heavy marketing dollars at work to ensure your opinion of energy drinks is that they are so potent and effective they’re one step away from being a pharmaceutical product. This is nothing more than hype. Based on the sugar and chemical content alone of most energy drinks (just check the ingredients label), I recommend avoiding them entirely. They’re bad for your teeth and only add more toxins to your body. Their dehydrating action decrease your body’s internal water supply and natural detoxification processes. Where’s the benefit?

If you’re so constantly run down you need energy drinks to get you through the day, I recommend taking an inventory of your life to determine the root causes of your exhaustion. Are you getting enough sleep? Are you nutritionally deprived? What are you eating? Are you drinking enough water? Are you getting regular exercise? Fatigue will stem from being deficient with any one of those habits. Getting them in check can completely eliminate your desire for the “enhanced” and over-hyped soda pop that is the average energy drink. Get your nutrition in check, get your exercise routine in check, get your sleep in check, and if you’re concerned about the effects of built up toxins, you can also cleanse your body.


  1. Reissig CJ, Strain EC, Griffiths RR. Caffeinated energy drinks–a growing problem. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009 Jan 1;99(1-3):1-10. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2008.08.001. Epub 2008 Sep 21. Review.
  2. Wolk BJ, Ganetsky M, Babu KM. Toxicity of energy drinks. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2012 Apr;24(2):243-51. doi: 10.1097/MOP.0b013e3283506827. Review.
  3. Szpak A, Allen D. A case of acute suicidality following excessive caffeine intake. J Psychopharmacol. 2012 Nov;26(11):1502-10. doi: 10.1177/0269881112442788. Epub 2012 Apr 2.
  4. Duchan E, Patel ND, Feucht C. Energy drinks: a review of use and safety for athletes. Phys Sportsmed. 2010 Jun;38(2):171-9. doi: 10.3810/psm.2010.06.1796.
  5. Park S, Onufrak S, Blanck HM, Sherry B. Characteristics associated with consumption of sports and energy drinks among US adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2010. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013 Jan;113(1):112-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2012.09.019.
  6. Wilhelm P, van Diepen MA, Nieuwenhuis L, Boulogne TL. [The effect of energy drinks on the cognitive performance of adolescents]. Tijdschr Psychiatr. 2013;55(1):57-62. Dutch.
  7. Eckerson JM, Bull AJ, Baechle TR, Fischer CA, O’Brien DC, Moore GA, Yee JC, Pulverenti TS. Acute Ingestion of Sugar-free Red Bull Energy Drink has no Effect on Upper Body Strength and Muscular Endurance in Resistance Trained Men. J Strength Cond Res. 2012 Dec 4.
  8. Gwacham N, Wagner DR. Acute effects of a caffeine-taurine energy drink on repeated sprint performance of American college football players. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2012 Apr;22(2):109-16. Epub 2012 Feb 15.
  9. Guilbeau JR. Health risks of energy drinks: what nurses and consumers need to know. Nurs Womens Health. 2012 Oct-Nov;16(5):423-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-486X.2012.01766.x.
  10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Energy drink consumption and its association with sleep problems among U.S. service members on a combat deployment – Afghanistan, 2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2012 Nov 9;61(44):895-8.

  • jhic

    i drink 3-4 bottle energy drink everyday.. so what would might happen to me??

  • Edward Group

    No offense jhic but that sounds like a toxic overload, why do you consume so much so often??

  • steph

    BS – caffeine does improve athletic performance. the studies cited are biased.

  • Edward Group

    Thanks for weighing in with that thought, Steph. Do you have some links you can share to non-biased studies?

  • stu

    they are bad for you mate honestly

  • X

    Comparing these to coffee or tea can only be done fairly if you have 12 teaspoons of sugar in each cup. The hype based (medically unproven) marketing in conjunction with the sugar content and resulting acidity of the drinks is the dangerous part. How many school aged children drink coffee or tea before school? A lot fewer than those who do not understand the effect that sleep deprivation during their most important developmental years will have.
    And now we mix it with alcohol at clubs etc… so understatedly unhealthy.

  • dana

    what about powerade zero? does it have sugar?
    conflicting answers are found online

  • ghc_health

    I would check the label.

  • dana

    powerade has conflicting reports online as to the sugar content. the label does not specify anything….any suggestions?
    it is made by coca cola

  • moe

    Why drink energy drinks when there is water . Dont be stupid and just drink anything not fresh or bottled. Water or fresh juices are always the best way to live like normal people.

  • BruceMichaelGrant

    I like my Monster Blue. I drink five cans a day, every day. GFY.

  • Irrelevant 

    While statistics may be true, they are bias. An example: anyone who understands loco-motor function knows that sugar does not provide energy for power lifts such as single repetition exercise. This study should be done for running over 20 minutes.
    The article claimed that guarana, taurine, ginseng, and B vitamins as ‘energy providing’ which is a false statement.
    Guarana is the only that this statement could be true of because it is similar to caffeine.
    Vitamin B is water soluble and is filtered out of the body when in excess.
    Taurine helps regulate sodium balance which negates the excess sodium.
    I am disappointed this has an Dr. for an author

  • Matthew Arntzen

    What does that mean?

  • CyclingBOSS

    Did you know… A 220ml can of starbucks double shot iced coffe has 94mg of caffine and a 250ml can of red bull has 64mg…

  • Dee

    My husband started drinking a chocolate muscle monster drink yesterday and swallowed something? We video the rest of it as he poured it into a bowl, looks like fatty meat, got it in a container, might need to have it analyzied. Know what you are drinking. I would say he was getting some protein from something!! He said he would never drink another. Might even do a video, people need to know what they are drinking!!!

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  • Nick

    I drink about 2 energy drinks everyday, and have been doing so for just over a year. I’ve been promoted, making more money than ever, and even landed that corner office. I worked for an energy drink company through college, so I’m sure that I have built up quite a tolerance, but I’m still curious about the effects that my energy drink of choice (Monster Zero Ultra) is actually causing more damage than I am considering. The way I see it, I would probably be drinking coffee anyway and likely more than one cup; but my Monster Zero just tastes so much better!

    I am, at times, beginning to get concerned about long-term affects of regularly ingesting this cocktail of chemicals, or whether anyone has studied how the body changes with prolonged daily use of energy drinks?

  • Tony Hawk

    “The manufacturers of energy drinks are not required to list whether or not the herbs they use have been sprayed with toxic pesticides”

    bullshit, pesticides are everywhere

    “consuming energy drinks had no significant positive effect on concentration, reasoning, or aptitude.”

    another big bullshit, caffeine is proved to have a positive effect in concentration and of course in aptitude

  • blupsam

    don’t “drunkshame”.
    listen, “Jessica” said she only drinks when she’s hungover. for all you know, she might do this once or twice a month, or YEAR.
    I don’t drink much energy drinks, I usually stick to tea, milk (my choice beverage) water or juice, but occasionally i will try some out, mostly I drink it like soda (since that’s what they are) if I am exceptionally tired or something. not often.

  • blupsam

    Dr G baby, that “Dr. Riviera” guy is not a real doctor. he’s a troll on the internet, you can tell because he attacks chiropractory (the most conventional-medicine-y part of your “alternative” medicine) he is rude, and uncourteous, is unprofessional and formulates himself childishly. i.e. “_your_ are not a” a real professional would not communicate like this.

    thank you for your time Dr. G

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