20 Health Conditions That Mimic ADHD

ADHD

ADHD, or attention deficit hyperactive disorder, is diagnosed through mere observation of symptoms and not by any sort of scientific testing. There are no brain scans, blood tests, or biological readings to determine the presence of ADHD, just a myriad of behavioral and psychological symptoms. [1] Although many of the symptoms arise from an underlying cause, most doctors who diagnose children and adults with ADHD tend to overlook the underlying health factors in lieu of prescribing an ADHD medication. Whether concentration issues are the result of an allergy, lack of physical or mental stimulation, or is the result of nutrient malabsorption, misdiagnosis is bound to contribute to the sharp increase in ADHD diagnoses.

Conditions That Mimic ADHD

There are many biological, physiological, emotional, and medical conditions that may cause symptoms similar to those ascribed to ADHD. Here are just a few of the issues that might be influencing ADHD-like behavior.

1. Hypoglycemia

Blood sugar issues are common, especially in children who regularly consume high-carbohydrate foods. Highly processed foods often encourage a blood sugar crash. Low blood sugar, or hypoglycemia, can cause irritability, lack of concentration and focus, and low energy levels — classic “ADHD” symptoms. [2] Although research hasn’t shown that sugar causes ADHD, it has been shown to boost observable symptoms.

2. Allergies

Allergic reactions to synthetic dyes, preservatives, and other food chemicals can lead to symptoms associated with ADHD. [3] [4] One of the first steps to take if you’re experiencing concentration or focus problems is to avoid synthetic, processed, and non-organic food whenever possible.

3. Learning Disabilities

There are many reasons why a child (or even an adult) may have trouble learning. Perhaps they learn at a slower rate. On the other hand, maybe they can pick up new information faster than those around them, resulting in extra downtime for daydreaming and restlessness. Whatever the cause, undiagnosed issues can result in an ADHD diagnosis. Perhaps all that’s required to improve symptoms is a change of environment or teaching method.

4. Hyper- or Hypothyroidism

Both the underproduction and overproduction of thyroid hormones can cause energy imbalances, mood disorders, and concentration issues. Anyone who is currently experiencing such problems should have their thyroid evaluated before diving into traditional ADHD therapies. [5]

5. Hearing and Vision Issues

If a child has trouble seeing the board or hearing the teacher, this could affect how they perform in the classroom. This can affect adults as well, and many older adults are reluctant to tell their doctor about hearing or eyesight issues. Remedying poor eyesight or hearing may be helpful for avoiding an ADHD diagnosis.

6. Lead Poisoning

People with abnormal levels of lead in their body are more likely to suffer from lower IQ, attention deficits, and negative work and school performance. Studies indicate that lead may be one of the leading culprits for increasing hyperactivity in children. [6]

Genetic Conditions That Mimic ADHD

Certain genetic diseases, like diabetes and heart disease, may also increase ADHD symptoms. People who have been diagnosed with ADHD should take inventory to determine if they’re instead suffering from any one of the following conditions.

7. Diabetes

People who have a family history of diabetes should make sure they are keeping their blood sugar in check. High blood sugar, whether genetic or not, could present symptoms related to ADHD, including anxiety, poor focus, and aggression. [7]

8. Heart Disease

Any sort of heart abnormality can affect blood, oxygen, and nutrient flow to the brain. Adults and children alike should look into their heart health if on the verge of being diagnosed with ADHD, especially if heart disease runs in the family.

9. Anemia

While anemia isn’t always inherited, the condition, marked by a lack of red blood cells, is often a result of genetics. Anemia can cause a decreased level of oxygen to the brain, possibly leading to brain dysfunction.

10. Bipolar Disorder

Many health experts believe that 85% of children with bipolar disorder meet the criteria set for ADHD. [8] For children suffering from bipolar, mood swings can occur throughout the day, and many doctors, parents, and teachers misjudge these occurrences as ADHD.

Other Factors That Mimic ADHD

The following rare and lesser-known conditions are also known to affect mood, behavior, and mental function…

11. Spinal Problems

The spine is connected directly to the brain, and a misalignment can affect nerves and influence symptoms linked to ADHD. Exploring this with a trained chiropractor may be helpful for individuals suffering from ADHD-related symptoms. [9]

12. Toxin Overload

Gasoline fumes, pesticides, and lead are just a few of the toxins that permeate every day life. At times, you can become bogged down with toxins that manifest certain symptoms and conditions, including those associated with ADHD. [10] [11] When the liver isn’t functioning as it should, it may prompt a lack of focus, concentration issues, and irritability.

13. Metabolic Disorders

Certain metabolic disorders that interfere with the body’s ability to metabolize, or break down and absorb, certain nutrients may lead to the mental degeneration. [12] A brain that can’t properly utilize glucose, for example, may experience difficulty processing and retaining information, a marked sign of attention deficit disorder.

14. Sleeping Issues

Sleeping habits that are less than ideal can increase the chances of an individual being diagnosed as having ADD or ADHD. Not getting enough sleep or getting too much sleep can make you groggy and restless, both of which interfere with concentration.

15. Infections

A viral or bacterial infection could lead to temporary changes in behavior, and not for the better. [13] People with suppressed immune systems are the most susceptible. Even minor infections can affect behavior, mood, and mental clarity.

16. Diet

Caffeine and sugar are two of the worst offenders when it comes to maintaining mental health and clarity. Both behave like drugs and have addictive qualities. Sugar and caffeine stress the adrenals, lead to energy crashes, cause nervous issues and agitation, and even contribute to decreased memory and focus. Not receiving adequate vitamins and minerals can also interfere with brain metabolism, especially B vitamins. Every diet should include a balance of protein, fiber, and fat to prevent blood sugar spikes that produce energy lulls and concentration issues — two symptoms typified by ADHD.

17. Taking Prescription Medications

Some prescription drugs can lead to minor brain atrophy, a condition that can cause a disturbance in cognition. Prescription medications may also interfere with brain function to cause mental and physical fatigue.

18. Brain Disorders

Children or adults with brain disorders that interfere with their sensory faculties may display symptoms of ADHD. Minor seizure disorders, if undiagnosed, can be mistaken for attention deficit disorder. While rare, these issues should be considered before jumping into a conventional ADHD care regimen.

19. Intestinal Imbalance

An imbalance of good bacteria in the intestines can interfere with brain function. Serotonin, a neurotransmitter present in the intestines, is a great influencer of mood and behavior. Bad bacteria in the gut can negatively affect this neurotransmitter. Sugar, processed carbohydrates, and a lack of sunlight can interfere with the balance of good to bad bacteria in the body.

20. Lack of Exercise

Physical activity is good for body and mind and helps to release energy and tension. Exercise also increases oxygen intake and this stimulates brain activity. Research has proven that exercise, especially out in nature, can improve concentration and decrease common symptoms of ADHD. [14] [15]

One Final Thought

Nobody knows your body or situation better than you. If you, or someone you know, is suffering from ADHD-like symptoms or even been diagnosed with ADHD, it may be worth digging deeper to determine if that’s really the issue. After all, the mind medicines typically prescribed are… questionable, to say the very least.

How have you dealt with attention issues? Please leave a comment and share your insight!

-Dr. Edward F. Group III, DC, ND, DACBN, DCBCN, DABFM

References:

  1. Rowland AS. The epidemiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a public health view. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev. 2002;8(3):162-70.
  2. Yujeong Kim and Hyeja Chang. Correlation between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and sugar consumption, quality of diet, and dietary behavior in school children. Nutrition Research and Practice. June 2011; 5(3): 236-245.
  3. Joel T. Nigg, Ph.D., Kara Lewis, Ph.D., Tracy Edinger, N.D., Michael Falk, Ph.D. Meta-Analysis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Restriction Diet, and Synthetic Food Color Additives. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. Volume 51, Issue 1, Pages 86-97 .e8, January 2012.
  4. Kanarek RB. Artificial food dyes and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Nutrition Review. 2011 July;69(7):385-91. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2011.00385.x.
  5. Weiss RE, Stein MA, Trommer B, Refetoff S. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and thyroid function. Journal of Pediatrics. 1993 October;123(4):539-45.
  6. Kim S, Arora M, Fernandez C, Landero J, Caruso J, Chen A. Lead, mercury, and cadmium exposure and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children. Environmental Research. 2013 October;126: 105-10. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2013.08.008.
  7. Chen HJ, Lee YJ, Yeh GC. Association of attention-defict/hyperactivity disorder with diabetes: a population-based study. Pediatric Research. 2013 April;73(4 Pt 1):492-6. doi: 10.1038/pr.2013.5.
  8. Singh MK, DelBello MP, Kowatch RA, Strakowski SM. Co-occurrence of bipolar and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders in children. Bipolar Disorder. 2006 December;8(6):710-20.
  9. Jeffrey M. Muir. Chiropractic management of a patient with symptoms of attention-defcit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine. September 2012; 11(3): 221-224.
  10. Yousef S, Adem A, Zoubeidi T, Kosanovic M, Mabrouk AA, Eapen V. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and environmental toxic metal exposure in the United Arab Emirates. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics. 2011 December;57(6):457-60. doi: 10.1093/tropej/fmq121.
  11. Curtis LT, Patel K. Nutritional and environmental approaches to preventing and treating autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a review. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2008 January-February;14(1):79-85. doi: 10.1089/acm.2007.0610.
  12. Zametkin AJ, Liebenauer LL, Fitzgerald GA, King AC, Minkunas DV, Herscovitch P, Yamada EM, Cohen RM. Brain metabolism in teenagers with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry. 1993 May;50(5):333-40.
  13. Barichello T, Generosos JS, Milioli G, Elias SG, Teixeira AL. Pathophysiology of bacterial infection of the central nervous system and its putative role in the pathogenesis of behavioral changes. The Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria. 2013 March;35(1):81-7.
  14. Frances E. Kuo, PhD and Andrea Faber Taylor, PhD. A Potential Natural Treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Evidence From a National Study. American Journal of Public Health. 2004 September; 94(9): 1580-1586
  15. Claudia Verret, Marie-Claude Guay, Claude Berthiaume, Phillip Gardiner, Louise Béliveau. A Physical Activity Program Improves Behavior and Cognitive Functions in Children with ADHD: An Exploratory Study. Journal of Attention Disorders: January 2012 vol. 16 no. 1 71-80.

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  • karie

    Good article. In my family, a diagnosis of ADHD and ADD turned out to be food and chemical sensitivities and gut flora imbalances. Both of which are highly treatable with diet changes (esp. gluten and milk) and supplements of probiotics and enzymes. It frustrates me that the whole psychiatric profession and medicine in general, ignore the underlying physical causes of so many disorders, many of which are simply nutritional (allergies, sensitivities, mal-absorbtion) and environmental such as petro chemicals (fumes, perfumes, carpets, fluoride, etc. etc.) It would not profit them or big pharma to inform their patients of these things. Plus many Dr’s and health care professionals are willfully in the dark because of their unholy alliance with big pharma. I think this is not only negligent but borders on criminal!

  • Colorista

    You don’t specifically mention Celiac. Any opinion on it mimicking symptoms od ADHD

  • Ben Evans

    I believe most cases of ADHD, especially in this current time in history, especially in children, is a direct cause of poor lifestyle and improper diet. TV and computer games also add their damage increasingly as time goes by. I was diagnosed with ADHD as a child and my mother refused to put me on Ritalin (phew!). I was highly introverted most of the time and played computer games as if they were my life and life was a artificial simulation I wanted no part in. As I grew I learned how to manage my imbalances, figure out what they are and what was causing them with greater and greater clarity. Sugary gmo and chemical laden foods were my problem, and although I still have some of the negative ADHA tendencies, for the most part they are reversed and have resulted in great focus, clarity, interest and attention, ability to recall and memories information and sit in a high and happy emotional state all from the time I wake until the next morning. All it took was becoming educated about human health and applying them. Proper diet, exercise (martial arts), and meditation are the 3 practices that turned me from a hyper-active depressed and uninterested child into a well balanced, helpful, interested and happy man.

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  • Elizabeth Conley

    My son had an undiagnosed
    inner ear disease that resulted in poor hearing and balance problems.

    This went undiscovered until he was 9 years old, because his hearing tests were
    always given with the person administering the test in the same room with him.
    My son, who was very, very socially perceptive, was cued by the micro-expressions
    and minute movements of the people administering the hearing tests. He had no
    idea he could not hear. He thought “hearing” was a general awareness
    of what was going on around him and what people were communicating. He erupted
    in tears the day he was placed in a dim, sound-proofed room alone to perform a
    REAL test of his hearing. He told us the test was unfair – that there was no
    way he could “hear” in the dark.

    I was so thankful I nearly cried myself. I did not need the test results to
    know that all our suspicions had finally been confirmed. Our son did not have
    an exotic learning disability or mental disorder. He was hearing disabled. From
    that moment forward his diagnosis and treatment moved swiftly, and all our
    lives improved dramatically.

    That moment in the real hearing lab was hard fought for. Throughout his early
    childhood we had been subjected to a managed care health plan with
    prohibitively difficult steps to follow in order for us to acquire an
    appointment with any specialists. The “primary
    care physician” was the gatekeeper, and ours were all in love with exotic
    mental health diagnoses. Their second favorite
    delusion was that all parents were closet child abusers. Getting past these fruitcakes to see a
    specialist was an exhausting process, fraught with risk. (Over and over again since our son’s
    diagnosis I have castigated myself for not having pooled our resources and
    simply paid for a visit to an otolaryngologist myself. Since I had no experience with competent,
    sane physicians, I had not seriously considered that option. )

    Anyway, before our son’s
    real diagnosis, his public school teachers were in love with the Asperger’s
    syndrome diagnosis. It was their answer
    to everything. When you examined their
    checklist for Autism, you could see why.
    Anybody, anywhere could be “diagnosed” with this “catch-all”
    disorder. Once diagnosed, the school
    could get extra money and extra resources, and the child could be emotionally abused
    and educationally neglected with impunity.
    Needless to say, I did not buy
    into it, but continued to fight for my son’s right to be educated to a
    reasonable standard.

    We now homeschool, because
    I got tired of trying to persuade educators to do right by my children. It is more time consuming and frustrating to
    beg, plead, whine and attend endless meetings than it is to home school two
    intelligent, good-natured children with health problems.

    Parents: be
    encouraged. Keep trying. Don’t give up.

    Doctors: please listen to parents and treat them with
    a modicum of respect. Further, please
    consider all possible medical diagnoses before labeling a parent or child
    mentally ill or personality disordered.
    We come to you for medical help.
    Please deliver that assistance, rather than burdening us with a
    difficult, unpleasant ordeal each time we try to treat our children’s
    illnesses.

  • Elizabeth Conley

    With you there!
    I wish I had known all my life what I now know about food. I thought I was eating a healthy diet and feeding my kids good food. (Have you noticed that in the U.S. even candy bars make claims of being healthy?)
    Anyway, we now eat much better food. Lots of kefir, yoghurt, kimchi, vegetables, fruit, starchy root vegetables, nuts and meat – almost no prepared food or grains – except heirloom varieties. We are all so much more healthy now than in the past. I feel better at 52 than I did at 16.
    Food is the best medicine in the world.

  • http://www.mormonstruth.org/products.html Dave P.

    Don’t forget that the one who originally diagnosed ADHD admitted it is a fictitious disease.

  • http://www.globalhealingcenter.com/ Global Healing Center

    Yep, “healthy” is for sale and there are plenty of companies out there selling it.

  • rick lane

    I have ADD and have taken Adderall for about 8 years. It has been a great medicine for me. I perform at a much higher level than I did before I took Adderall.

    However, as Dr. Group points out, it is not for everybody. My cousin has ADD but Adderall did not improve her condition, so she quickly discontinued the use of it. I suggest people be diagnosed by a specialist in this field and NOT go to a family doctor. There is a lot of ADD information to keep up with for a generalist.

    I heard Alex Jones claim studies show Adderall causes brain shrinkage but I have never been able to find these studies. My doctor said some of the stimulant medications were originally developed as weight loss drugs, so they can reduce a person’s appetite which could potentially cause a person to be slightly less tall than they would otherwise be.

  • Sam Oranger

    ADHD is real. I have it and was not diagnosed until I was 35. The diagnosis finally explained all the issues I had since I was 5 years old. I tried years of healthy eating and have always exercised and nothing worked. The medication I received has worked wonders for years now. Without the meds, I would be depressed forever. Maybe it is over-diagnosed, but ADHD is real

  • http://www.globalhealingcenter.com/ Global Healing Center

    Thanks for sharing your story!

  • http://www.globalhealingcenter.com/ Global Healing Center

    Haven’t seen anything, what info are you familiar with?

  • student

    Dr. Group,

    I noticed that you include the initials “N.D.” after your name indicating that you are a naturopathic doctor. According to Council on Naturopathic Medical Education, the accrediting body for naturopathic medical programs, the Natural Healing Institute of Naturopathy is not an accredited naturopathic program. As a student of naturopathic medicine, I find it most troubling that you discuss natural medicine as if you have a legitimate education in naturopathic medicine, in particular the formulation of herbal formulas such as glycerites and many of the various detoxifying cleanses that you recommend. In addition to the basic and clinical sciences (anatomy, biochemistry, physiology, pathology, rheumatology, endocrinology, gerontology, pulmonology etc), naturopathic doctoral students are required to complete a series of botanical medicine classes that cover: parts of the plant used, taste, principal actions, major organ system affinities, formulation, dose, toxicity, indication/contraindications of herbs, adverse effects, drug interactions etc. Your lack of formal education in the art and science of naturopathic medicine seems quite apparent in the instances I have heard you speak of “natural remedies.” Might I suggest you attend a formal, accredited 4-year naturopathic medical school instead of a natural healing “institute” before using the “N.D.” suffix after your name. By using this credential you deceive your audience and the general public as to how a trained and licensed (20 states currently) naturopathic doctor may assess a patient’s chief complaint, including but not limited to taking a family history, surgical history, current medications and supplements, accidents/hospitalizations, allergies, dietary assessment combined with a thorough intake of subjective data, review of systems, objective data with physical exam, assessment and plan. Texas, among other states, does not license ND’s nor is there an accredited school for naturopathic doctors. This means that anyone may call themselves a naturopathic doctor, but may not diagnose or treat an individual. This loophole has benefited a great number of individuals seeking care from a formally trained naturopathic doctor as well as hurt those that have visited those who use the credential but have no formal medical naturopathic training. The difficulty of this matter is not limited to doctors of chiropractic medicine practicing “naturopathic medicine”, but a mindset of the conventional medical community thinking they understand and are competent to practice natural medicine. Thank you for reading and I encourage you to investigate and pursue naturopathic medical training at one of the accredited naturopathic universities before using the “ND” credential.

  • student

    Dr. Group,

    I noticed that you include the initials “N.D.” after your name indicating that you are a naturopathic doctor. According to Council on Naturopathic Medical Education, the accrediting body for naturopathic medical programs, the Natural Healing Institute of Naturopathy is not an accredited naturopathic program. As a student of naturopathic medicine, I find it most troubling that you discuss natural medicine as if you have a legitimate education in naturopathic medicine, in particular the formulation of herbal formulas such as glycerites and many of the various detoxifying cleanses that you recommend. In addition to the basic and clinical sciences (anatomy, biochemistry, physiology, pathology, rheumatology, endocrinology, gerontology, pulmonology etc), naturopathic doctoral students are required to complete a series of botanical medicine classes that cover: parts of the plant used, taste, principal actions, major organ system affinities, formulation, dose, toxicity, indication/contraindications of herbs, adverse effects, drug interactions etc. Your lack of formal education in the art and science of naturopathic medicine seems quite apparent in the instances I have heard you speak of “natural remedies.” Might I suggest you attend a formal, accredited 4-year naturopathic medical school instead of a natural healing “institute” before using the “N.D.” suffix after your name. By using this credential you deceive your audience and the general public as to how a trained and licensed (20 states currently) naturopathic doctor may assess a patient’s chief complaint, including but not limited to taking a family history, surgical history, current medications and supplements, accidents/hospitalizations, allergies, dietary assessment combined with a thorough intake of subjective data, review of systems, objective data with physical exam, assessment and plan. Texas, among other states, does not license ND’s nor is there an accredited school for naturopathic doctors. This means that anyone may call themselves a naturopathic doctor, but may not diagnose or treat an individual. This loophole has benefited a great number of individuals seeking care from a formally trained naturopathic doctor as well as hurt those that have visited “diploma mill doctors” who use the credential but have no formal medical naturopathic training. The difficulty of this matter is not limited to doctors of chiropractic medicine practicing “naturopathic medicine”, but a mindset of the conventional medical community thinking they understand and are competent to practice natural medicine. Thank you for reading and I encourage you to investigate and pursue naturopathic medical training at one of the accredited naturopathic universities before using the “ND” credential.

  • Patriot1

    ADHD is a copout and a scam. First, it’s a copout that kids who have been “diagnosed” with it use to avoid taking responsibility for anything. Whenever they do poorly in school or get into trouble for certain types of misbehavior they simply blame it on their so-called “ADHD.” I’ve seen this before with several of my friends’ kids. Second, it’s a scam concocted by shrinks, the government, and big pharma. Shrinks concocted the phony “disorder,” the government uses it to control kids in the public schools by turning them into doped up zombies, and big pharma rakes in big profits from the scam. The whole thing is criminal. I can smell a rat a mile away, and I knew this was phony right from the get go. Now the evidence is proving more and more that I was correct right from the start.

  • SunnySky

    Exactly. It is real.
    Why do stimulants calm me down then? Why did my daughter make the Dean’s list after ADHD diagnosis and treatment with Vyvanse? Because she could FOCUS. Having more energy has nothing to do with it.

  • SunnySky

    Absolutely! Malabsorption of nutrients.

  • SunnySky

    Not always true.
    Why do stimulants calm me down then? Why did my daughter make the Dean’s list after ADHD diagnosis and treatment with Vyvanse? Because she could FOCUS. (Having more energy has nothing to do with it.)

  • jen_

    My daughter is incredibly bright but has poor executive functioning skills. She has poor impulse control as well, often when kids bully her, which always started happening more after they noticed they could get a rise out of her getting her upset, crying or mad, or trying to get her in trouble. They laugh at her, mock her. She has one of the kindest hearts I have ever known, yet you would probably not understand at the same time how her short stress tolerance window she can become violent often after a day of stress she will take it out on me and have a violent outburst where I will have to restrain her enough to keep her from hurting herself as well and the only thing to remedy it is a nap.

    I refuse to put her on medication at this point looking for any other option I can find. I want to try to teach her to build her stress tolerance window and calm herself, using meditation, and other techniques. She is in counseling. She is young and her body and mind is still growing, my biggest objection to the medication and I haven’t exhausted all other efforts to help it yet. I have known side effects of medication myself and can’t put my child through that right now either, though it can do wonders for some. My concerns for it are too great with all I feel I have left to try to help her.

    I agree with SunnySky though, if it isn’t real why do stimulants help people? Why doesn’t caffeine affect me or her? You have not known your own child after an exhaustive episode finally calmed look at you finally talking with tears in their eyes and say “But I can’t control this.” It is completely heartbreaking, no matter how many bruises I have on me from it. This is a child that showed me true empathy again and again before I knew a person could ever really understand what it meant, before speaking, a truly kind soul.

    You really don’t know what you are talking about. Just because something may be over-diagnosed, mis-diagnosed, a popular trend at the time, doesn’t mean it doesn’t exist. I am tired of hearing how I just need to discipline her more or properly too, the people saying it almost as if I need to beat her, besides anything as spanking only makes this worse, these children need a lot more love and patience, NOT more discipline. Also, recent brain scans show that it is a condition that children are born with, as for any debate of nature vs. nurture and all the blame that goes to parents there.

    This diagnosis is not a cop out for us, it is a reality, it is our everyday.

  • Landon

    is there anything that could cause ADD/ ADHD symptoms that a CAT scan would pick up? I feel that my symptoms are extreme and could result to something else, I’m 24 and have always had symptoms but they have progresed

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